It is undoubtedly the belief in the miraculous power of prayer that motivates some parents not to vaccinate their children. The pastors say that vaccinations make healthy children sick, alluding to potential adverse reactions to vaccines. They assert that vaccination is "a tool of the Devil" that will impede children's protection by God. Our observation was that these pastors do not understand the benefits of immunization, and thus instil in their followers a false understanding of vaccination, which they consider to be "something evil, a satanic practice aimed at leading the faithful away from the right path.
The faithful perceive vaccinating children against their parents' will to be a violation of the rights of both children and parents. They deplore that some vaccinators use the police to force them to vaccinate their children, and say that the vaccinators should leave parents free to make their own choices, observing the tenets of their faith or biblical precepts.
According to them, prayer is the only means of obtaining God's protection against illness. Other leaders consider vaccines to be "poison" with which the vaccinators want to inoculate the children at any price; they see vaccinators as "distributors of poison and of sin. One pastor, in explaining this situation, said, "as soon as I find out this has happened, I punish these followers before the divine wrath comes down on them, because they are disobeying God. Some pastors invoke biblical passages, whose content appears to be poorly understood, to justify their attitude toward health services, and especially vaccination.
It is in this regard that the biblical passage from Isaiah, chapter 55, on the free blessings of God, is often cited. The discourse of non-reticent pastors on the acceptance of vaccination is ambiguous, especially when they suggest that each person has his or her own opinion on the question and that they do not impose theirs on their followers. They say they have their own children vaccinated in spite of themselves and that the faithful are free to have their children vaccinated or not, in obedience to the health authorities. This obedience is based on the biblical principle that "the faithful must obey authority.
This ambiguous position is clearly illustrated in a statement made by one of the pastors: "I respect the position of members of my church who refuse vaccination. We must remember that faith is manifested differently in each of us, even if we are in the same church, such that individual members of my church can have different positions. These different statements come primarily from leaders who are uneducated and those with three to four years of schooling.
The discourse of educated pastors four to five years of primary schooling is often contrary to that of the non-educated pastors.
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They have a positive appreciation of the benefits of vaccination and encourage vaccinators to take care of the children of the faithful who accept. They do not impose their ideology on the faithful, but suggest that vaccination constitutes "a form of man's management of the world. The perception of the reticent faithful is the same as that of their religious leaders.
According to them, vaccination is against the will of God; vaccinating a child is like making a "deal with the Devil"; the act of vaccination is seen as "the work of the white witch doctor, contrary to biblical scriptures. Based on the principle that only God gives life and is responsible for protecting it against all diseases, the faithful are instructed to follow only God when faced with illness. We cannot mix things up: vaccination, herbal teas, talismans. In one discussion group, a mother declared: "It is the vaccines that make our children sick: hot bodies, vomiting; I nearly lost my child because he was vaccinated by force the last time.
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His body became hot and he was vomiting. In some churches, pastors have persuaded their followers that they can obtain cures for them from all sorts of illness, because they are healers with power from God. These pastors do not advise their followers to use health care services, and many followers believe wholeheartedly in the authority and healing power of their pastor.
From various conversations, it appears the aspirations and personalities of the religious leaders constitute real barriers to vaccination and promote reticence. In their quest for success and fame as healers, some pastors perceive health centres to be their competitors and therefore will portray them negatively, using primarily religious arguments.
Some have constructed a taboo a social and a moral proscription around vaccination; in Benin, a taboo is often an object that must not be touched or an idea that must not be questioned. To defy this interdiction entails sanctions and reprisals from those who guard the taboo. When men speak, they very often use a variety of citations to recall God's superiority. Women, on the other hand, refer to God as a superior being who must not be deceived and whose teachings must be respected. When the mothers of children targeted for vaccination spoke of God during the interviews, they often began with, "God does-n't like Illustrations of this are: "God does-n't like things that are dirty, and your vaccines are dirty"; "God has ordered us to trust only Him.
To use that which does not come from him to protect children is a sin.
Determinants of parents' reticence toward vaccination in urban areas in Benin (West Africa)
For the non-reticent, the advantages of vaccination were easily seen with the encouragement of vaccination officers. Nevertheless, concerns were raised about the forms of vaccines. The group discussions and interviews carried out among the members of the churches in Parakou brought out the fact that vaccinations go under two names, depending on the form of administration. Vaccination by injection is called "Sopu" "pricked" , while the oral form is called "Lisou".
This may explain why oral vaccination is resisted by mothers in certain localities. The faithful in other churches also declared that vaccination is "a means of prevention that can help save children. For other mothers, an effective vaccination is recognizable by the indelible scar it leaves behind, which is not the case for many vaccinations in the EPI.
In the localities of those who are reticent, church members with three to four years of schooling present the same arguments as those who are non-educated. In contrast, parents who completed primary school are more likely to be among the non-reticent. Among all the deterrents mentioned, prior experience of vaccination seems to carry significant weight. Many mothers said that vaccination sessions involved bureaucratic hassles and resulted in expenses for travel and for medications, in cases of adverse effects. False rumours about vaccination were mentioned to explain the reticent behaviour of some mothers, which undoubtedly arose from a lack of information.
Thus, poorly informed mothers mistakenly attributed to vaccination the occurrence of anaemia, which is sometimes fatal. These are most certainly children with undetected anaemia who exhibit symptoms only after vaccination. Other factors that incite some mothers to abstain from having their children vaccinated, even when they perceive the utility of it, include insufficient financial means to cover expenses and the family's fear of adverse reactions to the vaccination.
Some mothers who belong to reticent churches, even though they are reticent, have nevertheless had an experience of vaccination, which they recounted. They expressed their assessment of the two vaccination strategies generally employed and mentioned prior experiences that were negatively coloured by the tactless behaviours and actions of health workers. They said they preferred the outreach strategy, where the vaccinators are kinder and take their work more seriously, in contrast to vaccination sessions at fixed health posts.
Negative behaviours on the part of vaccinators do not encourage mothers to use vaccination services. However, coverage in some areas is still low, in spite of the efforts of vaccination teams. Recent studies have described the poor quality of vaccination services, with the constant stream of vaccine shortages, failures in asepsis with harmful consequences, and offensive behaviours on the part of vaccinators, all of which produce a negative reaction among parents in regard to immunization services in African countries [ 15 , 18 ].
In developed countries, the reticence observed arises from public dissatisfaction with information provided about vaccination and a desire to have more say in decisions. In France, for example, many parents express reservations and doubts about the efficacy of certain vaccines such as antigens against tuberculosis, measles, and mumps [ 16 , 19 ].
Their generally anti-establishment sentiments are furthered by the negative attitudes of some generalist physicians, a situation that encourages these parents in their rejection of vaccines of proven effectiveness. The situation was made worse by media reports on the risk of complications related to the measles vaccine and the risk of multiple sclerosis related to the hepatitis B vaccine [ 10 , 16 ]. Parents' reactions, denouncing these risks, raised doubts about the utility of vaccination.
They did not invoke Islamic belief in their refusal, but insisted the vaccine contained sterilizing products and accused the West of trying to rob them of their fertility [ 2 , 3 ]. In contrast, the present study focuses on religious belief among parents who belong to Christian sects as a factor in understanding the reticence toward vaccination.
Other studies have mentioned the religious dimension in explaining the low rate of immunization coverage, without going into detail [ 3 , 9 , 20 ]. However, the present survey of religious leaders and church members shows clearly the role played by religious factors in the occurrence and persistence of parents' vaccination-reticent behaviour.
In their statements, parents insist on their belief, which is based on their own interpretation of biblical scripture. They see vaccination as the "white witch doctor's work" and not as a divine imperative. The term "witch doctor" designates a person with supernatural powers who has made a pact with the Devil. The white man has developed the vaccine, a product reputed to prevent diseases; yet only God has this power. By creating the vaccine, the white man has entered into competition with God and therefore must have made a pact with the Devil to acquire these supernatural powers.
Among the reticent pastors and the faithful, belief appears to be so strong that it has obliterated any difference between the faithful with up to three years of schooling and those who are non-educated having never attended school. However, church-going parents and pastors who completed their primary education four and more years have a completely different behaviour; they acknowledge the benefits of vaccination for children's health and are generally not reticent.
The context within which the churches operate can also shed light on the decisions of the faithful with respect to vaccination. Indeed, the results of the survey show, among other things, that one difference between the non-reticent sects and those reticent toward vaccination is in the number of their members; the non-reticent sects have more followers than do those identified as vaccination-reticent. It may be that it is easier for a pastor to instil in a small number of followers his erroneous perception of vaccination and to impose this on them, than it would be with a larger number of people.
Many parents of targeted children, and their pastors, demonstrated through their statements that their religious beliefs strongly prevented them from accepting vaccination against EPI diseases. Added to this is belief in the power of witchcraft practised by vaccinators and medical professionals, and especially by the white creators of vaccines. In developing a solution to reticence in the African and especially in the Beninois context, we must take into account the representation of vaccination agents as persons who compete with God by using vaccines as protection against disease.
In addition, from the statements of those in charge of the non-reticent churches and having low levels of schooling, we note that their perceptions of vaccination are not based on confidence.
However, out of respect for an authority that orders vaccination and offers it free of charge to all parents, they accept to have their children vaccinated. This respect for authority was not shared by the reticent parents. Besides this religious dimension of reticence, other factors were highlighted, related to the behaviours of vaccinators, the experiences of mothers, and false rumours.
Most of these factors have already been mentioned in the literature from industrialized countries, where the preferred response has been to provide parents with clear information [ 19 ]. Indeed, in these industrialized countries, vaccination has been the victim of its own success. Because vaccination has defeated many infectious diseases, mothers of small children no longer live with the reality of these killer diseases and so no longer fear them, and they have difficulty comprehending the persistence of these diseases in other countries or localities [ 14 , 20 ].
In Africa, the situation is even more complicated because of the religious dimension that underlies reticence toward all child vaccination, and it requires a new response that takes into account the perceptions of parents in child immunization programs. HCI scholarship is increasingly concerned with the ethical impact of socio-technical systems. Current theoretically driven approaches that engage with ethics generally prescribe only abstract approaches by which designers might consider values in the design process.
However, there is little guidance on methods that promote value discovery, which might lead to more specific examples of relevant values in specific design contexts. We demonstrate the use of this method, called Ethicography, in describing value discovery and use throughout the design process. We present analysis of design activity by user experience UX design students in two lab protocol conditions, describing specific human values that designers considered for each task, and visualizing the interplay of these values.
We identify opportunities for further research, using the Ethicograph method to illustrate value discovery and translation into design solutions. Using qualitative methods, we analyzed problem descriptions to study the security issues users faced and the symptoms that led users to their own diagnoses. Subsequently, we investigated to what extent and for what types of issues user diagnoses matched those of experts. We found, for example, that users and experts were likely to agree for most issues, but not for attacks e.
Our findings inform several user-security improvements, including how to automate interactions with users to resolve issues and to better communicate issues to users. Many personal informatics systems allow people to collect and manage personal data and reflect more deeply about themselves. However, these tools rarely offer ways to customize how the data is visualized.
In this work, we investigate the question of how to enable people to determine the representation of their data. We analyzed the Dear Data project to gain insights into the design elements of personal visualizations. We developed DataSelfie, a novel system that allows individuals to gather personal data and design custom visuals to represent the collected data.
We conducted a user study to evaluate the usability of the system as well as its potential for individual and collaborative sensemaking of the data. Virtual reality VR headsets allow wearers to escape their physical surroundings, immersing themselves in a virtual world. Although escape may not be realistic or acceptable in many everyday situations, air travel is one context where early adoption of VR could be very attractive.
While travelling, passengers are seated in restricted spaces for long durations, reliant on limited seat-back displays or mobile devices. This paper explores the social acceptability and usability of VR for in-flight entertainment. Based on the survey results, we developed a VR in-flight entertainment prototype and evaluated this in a focus group study.
Our results discuss methods for improving the acceptability of VR in-flight, including using mixed reality to help users transition between virtual and physical environments and supporting interruption from other co-located people. In video production, inserting B-roll is a widely used technique to enrich the story and make a video more engaging. However, determining the right content and positions of B-roll and actually inserting it within the main footage can be challenging, and novice producers often struggle to get both timing and content right.
We present B-Script, a system that supports B-roll video editing via interactive transcripts. B-Script has a built-in recommendation system trained on expert-annotated data, recommending users B-roll position and content. To evaluate the system, we conducted a within-subject user study with participants, and compared three interface variations: a timeline-based editor, a transcript-based editor, and a transcript-based editor with recommendations.
Users found it easier and were faster to insert B-roll using the transcript-based interface, and they created more engaging videos when recommendations were provided. Dynamic elements of the drawing process e. Using our probe, we conducted studies with artists and art viewers, which reveal digital and physical representations of creative process as a means of reflecting on a multitude of factors about the finished artwork, including technique, style, and the emotions of the artists. We conclude by discussing future directions for HCI systems that sense and visualize aspects of the creative process in digitally-mediated arts, as well as the social considerations of sharing and curating intimate process information.
Although early interventions can provide significant benefits, PD diagnosis is often delayed due to both the mildness of early signs and the high requirements imposed by traditional screening and diagnosis methods. We investigate four types of common gestures, including flick, drag, pinch, and handwriting gestures, and propose a set of features to capture PD motor signs. Through a subject 35 early PD subjects and 67 age-matched controls study, our approach achieved an AUC of 0.
Our work constitutes an important step towards unobtrusive, implicit, and convenient early PD detection from routine smartphone interactions. There is a growing body of literature in HCI examining the intersection between policymaking and technology research. However, what it means to engage in policymaking in our field, or the ways in which evidence from HCI studies is translated into policy, is not well understood. We report on interviews with 11 participants working at the intersection of technology research and policymaking. Analysis of this data highlights how evidence is understood and made sense of in policymaking processes, what forms of evidence are privileged over others, and the work that researchers engage in to meaningfully communicate their work to policymaking audiences.
We discuss how our findings pose challenges for certain traditions of research in HCI, yet also open up new policy opportunities for those engaging in more speculative research practices. We conclude by discussing three ways forward that the HCI community can explore to increase engagement with policymaking contexts. Returning citizens formerly incarcerated individuals face great challenges finding employment, and these are exacerbated by the need for digital literacy in modern job search.
Through 23 semi-structured interviews and a pilot digital literacy course with returning citizens in the Greater Detroit area, we explore tactics and needs with respect to job search and digital technology. Returning citizens exhibit great diversity, but overall, we find our participants to have striking gaps in digital literacy upon release, even as they are quickly introduced to smartphones by friends and family. They tend to have employable skills and ability to use offline social networks to find opportunities, but have little understanding of formal job search processes, online or offline.
They mostly mirror mainstream use of mobile technology, but they have various reasons to avoid social media. These and other findings lead to recommendations for digital literacy programs for returning citizens. To this end, we conducted a 2 platform: web vs. We found that the participants in the chatbot survey, as compared to those in the web survey, were more likely to produce differentiated responses and were less likely to satisfice; the chatbot survey thus resulted in higher-quality data.
Moreover, when a casual conversational style is used, the participants were less likely to satisfice-although such effects were only found in the chatbot condition. These results imply that conversational interactivity occurs when a chat interface is accompanied by messages with effective tone. In this study, we prototype and examine a system that allows a user to manipulate a 3D virtual object with multiple fingers without wearing any device.
An autostereoscopic display produces a 3D image and a depth sensor measures the movement of the fingers. When a user touches a virtual object, haptic feedback is provided by ultrasound phased arrays. By estimating the cross section of the finger in contact with the virtual object and by creating a force pattern around it, it is possible for the user to recognize the position of the surface relative to the finger.
To evaluate our system, we conducted two experiments to show that the proposed feedback method is effective in recognizing the object surface and thereby enables the user to grasp the object quickly without seeing it. Consequently, existing applications and evaluations often lack in focus on attractiveness and effectiveness, which should be addressed on the levels of body, controller, and game scenario following a holistic design approach.
To contribute to this topic and as a proof-of-concept, we designed the ExerCube, an adaptive fitness game setup. Regarding flow, enjoyment and motivation, the ExerCube is on par with personal training. Results further reveal differences in perception of exertion, types and quality of movement, social factors, feedback, and audio experiences. Finally, we derive considerations for future research and development directions in holistic fitness game setups.
Addressing digital security and privacy issues can be particularly difficult for users who face challenging circumstances. We performed semi-structured interviews with residents and staff at 4 transitional homeless shelters in the U. Based on these interviews, we outline four tough times themes — challenges experienced by our financially insecure participants that impacted their digital security and privacy — which included: 1 limited financial resources, 2 limited access to reliable devices and Internet, 3 untrusted relationships, and 4 ongoing stress.
We provide examples of how each theme impacts digital security and privacy practices and needs. We then use these themes to provide a framework outlining opportunities for technology creators to better support users facing security and privacy challenges related to financial insecurity.
How does the presence of an audience influence the social interaction with a conversational system in a physical space? To answer this question, we analyzed data from an art exhibit where visitors interacted in natural language with three chatbots representing characters from a book.
We performed two studies to explore the influence of audiences. In Study 2, we analyzed over 5, conversation logs and video recordings, identifying dialogue patterns and how they correlated with the audience conditions. Some significant effects were found, suggesting that conversational systems in physical spaces should be designed based on whether other people observe the user or not.
Reflecting on their performance during classroom-teaching is an important competence for teachers. Such reflection-in-action RiA enables them to optimize teaching on the spot. Data scientists are responsible for the analysis decisions they make, but it is hard for them to track the process by which they achieved a result. Even when data scientists keep logs, it is onerous to make sense of the resulting large number of history records full of overlapping variants of code, output, plots, etc.
We developed algorithmic and visualization techniques for notebook code environments to help data scientists forage for information in their history. The quantitative results suggest promising aspects of our design, while qualitative results motivated a number of design improvements. The resulting system, called Verdant, is released as an open-source extension for JupyterLab. The privacy guaranteed by secure messaging applications relies on users completing an authentication ceremony to verify they are using the proper encryption keys.
We examine the feasibility of social authentication, which partially automates the ceremony using social media accounts. We implemented social authentication in Signal and conducted a within-subject user study with 42 participants to compare this with existing methods.
To generalize our results, we conducted a Mechanical Turk survey involving respondents. Our results show that users found social authentication to be convenient and fast. They particularly liked verifying keys asynchronously, and viewing social media profiles naturally coincided with how participants thought of verification. However, some participants reacted negatively to integrating social media with Signal, primarily because they distrust social media services. Overall, automating the authentication ceremony and distributing trust with additional service providers is promising, but this infrastructure needs to be more trusted than social media companies.
In this paper, we examine how deaf and hard of hearing DHH people think about and relate to sounds in the home, solicit feedback and reactions to initial domestic sound awareness systems, and explore potential concerns. We present findings from two qualitative studies: in Study 1, 12 DHH participants discussed their perceptions of and experiences with sound in the home and provided feedback on initial sound awareness mockups.
Informed by Study 1, we designed three tablet-based sound awareness prototypes, which we evaluated with 10 DHH participants using a Wizard-of-Oz approach. Together, our findings suggest a general interest in smarthome-based sound awareness systems particularly for displaying contextually aware, personalized and glanceable visualizations but key concerns arose related to privacy, activity tracking, cognitive overload, and trust.
Humans expect their collaborators to look beyond the explicit interpretation of their words. Implicature is a common form of implicit communication that arises in natural language discourse when an utterance leverages context to imply information beyond what the words literally convey. Whereas computational methods have been proposed for interpreting and using different forms of implicature, its role in human and artificial agent collaboration has not yet been explored in a concrete domain.
The results of this paper provide insights to how artificial agents should be structured to facilitate natural and efficient communication of actionable information with humans. We investigated implicature by implementing two strategies for playing Hanabi, a cooperative card game that relies heavily on communication of actionable implicit information to achieve a shared goal. These teams demonstrated game performance similar to other state of the art approaches. This paper explores the use of conversational speech question and answer systems in the challenging context of public spaces in slums.
A major part of this work is a comparison of the source and speed of the given responses; that is, either machine-powered and instant or human-powered and delayed. We examine these dimensions via a two-stage, multi-sited deployment. We report on a pilot deployment that helped refine the system, and a second deployment involving the installation of nine of each type of system within a large Mumbai slum for a day period, resulting in over 12, queries. We present the findings from a detailed analysis and comparison of the two question-answer corpora; discuss how these insights might help improve machine-powered smart speakers; and, highlight the potential benefits of multi-sited public speech installations within slum environments.
This paper investigates a hidden dimension of research with real world stakes: research subjects who care — sometimes deeply — about the topic of the research in which they participate. They manifest this care, we show, by managing how they are represented in the research process, by exercising politics in shaping knowledge production, and sometimes in experiencing trauma in the process. We draw first-hand reflections on participation in diversity research on Wikipedia, transforming participants from objects of study to active negotiators of research process.
We depict how care, vulnerability, harm, and emotions shape ethnographic and qualitative data. We argue that, especially in reflexive cultures, research subjects are active agents with agendas, accountabilities, and political projects of their own. We propose ethics of care and collaboration to open up new possibilities for knowledge production and socio-technical intervention in HCI.
In this paper, we propose an anticipation-autonomy policy framework that models three levels of proactivity high, medium and low of service robots in DMS contexts. Results show that a highly proactive robot is deemed inappropriate though people can get rich information from it. The least proactive robot grants users more control but may not realize its full capability. Research in Human-Computer Interaction for Development HCI4D routinely relies on and engages with the increasing penetration of smartphones and the internet.
We examine the mobile, internet, and social media practices of women community health workers, for whom internet access has newly become possible. These workers are uniquely positioned at the intersections of various communities of practice—their familial units, workplaces, networks of health workers, larger communities, and the online world.
However, they remain at the margins of each, on account of difference in gender, class, literacies, professional expertise, and more. Our findings unpack the legitimate peripheral participation of these workers; examining how they appropriate smartphones and the internet to move away from the peripheries to fully participate in these communities.
We discuss how their activities are motivated by moves towards empowerment, digitization, and improved healthcare provision. We consider how future work might support, leverage, and extend their efforts. In this paper, we explore collaboration practices around structured data and how they are supported by current technology. We present the results of an interview study with twenty data practitioners, from which we derive four high-level user needs for tool support.
We compare them against the capabilities of twenty systems that are commonly associated with data activities, including data publishing software, wikis, web-based collaboration tools, and online community platforms. Our findings suggest that data-centric collaborative work would benefit from: structured documentation of data and its lifecycle; advanced affordances for conversations among collaborators; better change control; and custom data access.
Raycasting is the most common target pointing technique in virtual reality environments. Current pointing facilitation techniques are currently only applied in the context of the virtual hand, i. We propose enhancements to Raycasting: filtering the ray, and adding a controllable cursor on the ray to select the nearest target.
We describe a series of studies for the design of the visual feedforward, filtering technique, as well as a comparative study between different 3D pointing techniques. Our results show that highlighting the nearest target is one of the most efficient visual feedforward technique. We also show that filtering the ray reduces error rate in a drastic way. Finally we show the benefits of RayCursor compared to Raycasting and another technique from the literature.
With upcoming breakthroughs in free-form display technologies, new user interface design challenges have emerged. Here, we investigate a question, which has been widely explored on traditional GUIs but unexplored on non-rectangular interfaces: what are the user strategies in terms of visual search when information is not presented in a traditional rectangular layout? To achieve this, we present two complementary studies investigating eye movements in different visual search tasks.
Our results unveil which areas are seen first according to different visual structures. By doing so we address the question of where to place relevant content for the UI designers of non-rectangular displays. Digital-augmentation of print-media can provide contextually relevant audio, visual, or haptic content to supplement the static text and images.
The design of such augmentation—its medium, quantity, frequency, content, and access technique—can have a significant impact on the reading experience.
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In the worst case, such as where children are learning to read, the print medium can become a proxy for accessing digital content only, and the textual content is avoided. We first report on the usage of a commercially available augmented comic for children, providing evidence that a third of all readers converted to simply viewing the digital media when printed content is duplicated. Second, we explore the design space for digital content augmentation in print media.
Third, we report a user study with children that examined the impact of both content length and presentation in a digitally-augmented comic book. From this, we report a series of design guidelines to assist designers and editors in the development of digitally-augmented print media. Sketches and real-world user interface examples are frequently used in multiple stages of the user interface design process. Unfortunately, finding relevant user interface examples, especially in large-scale datasets, is a highly challenging task because user interfaces have aesthetic and functional properties that are only indirectly reflected by their corresponding pixel data and meta-data.
This paper introduces Swire, a sketch-based neural-network-driven technique for retrieving user interfaces. We collect the first large-scale user interface sketch dataset from the development of Swire that researchers can use to develop new sketch-based data-driven design interfaces and applications. With this technique, for the first time designers can accurately retrieve relevant user interface examples with free-form sketches natural to their design workflows.
We demonstrate several novel applications driven by Swire that could greatly augment the user interface design process. Comics are an entertaining and familiar medium for presenting compelling stories about data. However, existing visualization authoring tools do not leverage this expressive medium. In this paper, we seek to incorporate elements of comics into the construction of data-driven stories about dynamic networks.
We contribute DataToon, a flexible data comic storyboarding tool that blends analysis and presentation with pen and touch interactions. A storyteller can use DataToon rapidly generate visualization panels, annotate them, and position them within a canvas to produce a visually compelling narrative. In a user study, participants quickly learned to use DataToon for producing data comics.
Children under 11 are often regarded as too young to comprehend the implications of online privacy. Such knowledge is, however, critical for designing efficient safeguarding mechanisms for this age group. Through 12 focus group studies with 29 children aged from UK schools, we examined how children described privacy risks related to their use of tablet computers and what information was used by them to identify threats.
We found that children could identify and articulate certain privacy risks well, such as information oversharing or revealing real identities online; however, they had less awareness with respect to other risks, such as online tracking or game promotions. Self-tracking can help people understand their medical condition and the factors that influence their symptoms. However, it is unclear how tracking technologies should be tailored to help people cope with the progression of a degenerative disease.
We describe how symptom trackers can help people identify and solve problems to improve their quality of life, the role symptom trackers can play in helping people combat their own tendencies towards avoidance and denial, and the complex role of care partners in defining and tracking ambiguous symptoms. Phishing attacks are a major problem, as evidenced by the DNC hackings during the US presidential election, in which staff were tricked into sharing passwords by fake Google security emails, granting access to confidential information.
Vulnerabilities such as these are due in part to insufficient and tiresome user training in cybersecurity. Ideally, we would have more engaging training methods that teach cybersecurity in an active and entertaining way. To address this need, we introduce the game What. Hack, which not only teaches phishing concepts but also simulates actual phishing attacks in a role-playing game to encourage the player to practice defending themselves.
Our user study shows that our game design is more engaging and effective in improving performance than a standard form of training and a competing training game design which does not simulate phishing attempts through role-playing. Existing methods for researching and designing to support relationships between parents and their adult children tend to lead to designs that respect the differences between them.
We conducted 14 Position Exchange Workshops with parents and their adult children, where the child has left home in recent years, aiming to explicate and confront their positions in creative and supportive ways. The findings show that the methods facilitated understanding, renegotiating, and reimagining their current positions. We discuss how positions can help consider both perspectives in the design process. This paper seeks to contribute 1 how the notion of positions enables generating understandings of the relationship, and 2 a set of methods influenced by position exchange, empathy, and playful engagement that help explore human relationships.
Every person is unique, with individual behavioural characteristics: how one moves, coordinates, and uses their body. In this paper we investigate body motion as behavioural biometrics for virtual reality. In particular, we look into which behaviour is suitable to identify a user. These body segments can be arbitrarily combined into body relations, and we found that these movements and their combination lead to characteristic behavioural patterns. Our findings are beneficial for researchers and practitioners alike who aim to build novel adaptive and secure user interfaces in virtual reality.
Current virtual reality applications do not support people who have low vision, i. We present SeeingVR, a set of 14 tools that enhance a VR application for people with low vision by providing visual and audio augmentations. A user can select, adjust, and combine different tools based on their preferences. Nine of our tools modify an existing VR application post hoc via a plugin without developer effort. The rest require simple inputs from developers using a Unity toolkit we created that allows integrating all 14 of our low vision support tools during development.
Our evaluation with 11 participants with low vision showed that SeeingVR enabled users to better enjoy VR and complete tasks more quickly and accurately. Developers also found our Unity toolkit easy and convenient to use. New technologies emerge into an increasingly complex everyday life. How can we engage users further into material practices that explore ideas and notions of these new things?
This paper proposes a set of qualities for short, intense, workshop-like experiences, created to generate strong individual commitments, and expose underlying personal desires as drivers for ideas. By making use of open-ended making to engage participants in the imagination of new things, we aim to allow a broad range of knowledge to materialise, focused on the making of work that is about technology, rather than of technology. Underperforming, degraded, and missing insulation in US residential buildings is common.
Detecting these issues, however, can be difficult. Using thermal cameras during energy audits can aid in locating potential insulation issues, but prior work indicates it is challenging to determine their severity using thermal imagery alone. In this work, we present an easy-to-deploy, temporal thermographic sensor system designed to support residential energy audits through quantitative analysis of building envelope performance.
We then offer an evaluation of the system through two studies: i a one-week, in-home field study in five homes and ii a semi-structured interview study with five professional energy auditors. Emerging technologies—such as the voice enabled internet—present many opportunities and challenges for HCI research and society as a whole. Advocating for better, healthier implementations of these technologies will require us to communicate abstract values, such as trust, to an audience that ranges from the general public to technologists and even policymakers.
In this paper, we show how a combination of film-making and product design can help to illustrate these abstract values. Working as part of a wider international advocacy campaign, Our Friends Electric focuses on the voice enabled internet, translating abstract notions of Internet Health into comprehensible digital futures for the relationship between our voice and the internet. We conclude with a call for designers of physical things to be more involved with the development of trust, privacy and security in this powerful emerging technological landscape.
Turning these research outputs into productive interventions, however, is difficult. We argue that design is well positioned to address such a challenge thanks to its methodological traditions of problem setting and framing situated in synthetic rather than analytic knowledge production. In this paper, we focus on designing for experiences of menopause. We document the unfolding of our design reasoning, showing how good-seeming insights nonetheless often lead to bad designs, while working progressively towards stronger insights and design constructs.
Previous research on games for people with visual impairment PVI has focused on co-designing or evaluating specific games — mostly under controlled conditions. To explore these issues, we conducted an online survey and follow-up interviews with gamers with VI GVI. Dominant themes from our analysis include the particular appeal of digital games to GVI, the importance of social trajectories and histories of gameplay, the need to balance complexity and accessibility in both games targeted to PVI and mainstream games, opinions about the state of the gaming industry, and accessibility concerns around new and emerging technologies such as VR and AR.
Our study gives voice to an underrepresented group in the gaming community. Understanding the practices, experiences and motivations of GVI provides a valuable foundation for informing development of more inclusive games. How humans use computers has evolved from human-machine interfaces to human-human computer mediated communication.
Whilst the field of animal-computer interaction has roots in HCI, technology developed in this area currently only supports animal? This design fiction paper presents animal-animal connected interfaces, using dogs as an instance. Through a co-design workshop, we created six proposals. The designs focused on what a dog internet could look like and how interactions might be presented. This resulted in the use of objects seen as familiar to dogs. This was conjoined with interest in how to initiate and end interactions, which was often achieved through notification systems.
This paper builds upon HCI methods for unconventional users, and applies a design fiction approach to uncover key questions towards the creation of animal-to-animal interfaces. Human Computer Interaction has developed great interest in the Maker Movement. Previous work has explored it from various perspectives, focusing either on its potentials or issues.
As these are however only fragmented portrayals, this paper aims to take a broader perspective and interconnect some of the fragments.
- Mooresville Public Library.
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- Salvador Allende - Wikipedia!
We conducted a qualitative study in the context of two Maker Faires to gain a better understanding of the complex dynamics that makers operate in. We captured the voices of different stakeholders and explored how their respective agendas relate to each other. The findings illustrate how the event is co-created at the nexus of different technological, social and economic interests while leaving space for diverse practices.
The paper contributes a first focused analysis of Maker Faire, probes it as a site for research and discusses how holistic perspectives on the Maker Movement could create new research opportunities. Tools for self-care of chronic conditions often do not fit the contexts in which self-care happens because the influence of context on self-care practices is unclear.
It is well established that some groups or populations in society experience social and economic disadvantage — inequities — due to the unequal distribution of power, wealth and resources. Inequities contribute to poor physical and mental health, making it difficult to access the resources needed to be, get and stay healthy Braveman and Gruskin, CMHA Ontario and partners identified social inclusion, freedom from discrimination and access to economic resources as the three most significant determinants of mental health in Ontario in Mental Health Promotion in Ontario: A Call To Action.
All three determinants are key components of equity. Three dynamic and overlapping relationships between equity and mental health can be identified:. Equity matters for mental health. Due to decreased access to the social determinants of health, inequities negatively impact on the mental health of Ontarians.